Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Often, the news that appears in the press does not seem to give reasons for optimism: human rights violations, environmental degradation, lack of solidarity, injustices… however, if we were to add up the positive news that does not appear on the front pages of the mainstream media (often because misfortunes, unfortunately, sell more than smiles), we would see that the balance is much more in favor of the good than the bad.
The Amnesty International report lists at least 3 facts that violate human rights in 2013. However, there are neither violations of freedom of expression, assembly and movement, nor allegations of torture, nor is there a death penalty, 3 of the main yardsticks that RTVE uses to draw up its map. Canada has traditionally been a country respectful of human rights. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, a fundamental document that governs the life of the country in all aspects, is integrated in its constitution. The results of this protection are evident: low levels of inequality, control of institutions by citizens, corporate social responsibility regulated by legislation? Canada is not a perfect country, of course, but it is very advanced in terms of guaranteeing the rights and freedoms of individuals.
When the universal declaration of human rights is ratified, monitoring mechanisms also vary in terms of the degree of individual access to expose abuse and claim remedies.
Monitoring mechanisms also vary in the degree of individual access to expose cases of abuse and claim remedies. Under some conventions or recommendations – for example, the European Convention on Human Rights – individuals or states are allowed, under certain conditions, to take individual cases to a court of law at the international level. Sometimes this can be done in national courts because of universal jurisdiction.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, along with other international human rights instruments, are sometimes referred to as the international bill of rights. OHCHR identifies international human rights instruments and most are referenced on the OHCHR website.
Ratification of human rights
1. Defense and legal assistance are inviolable rights at every stage and level of the investigation and trial. Every person has the right to be notified of the charges for which he is being investigated, to have access to evidence, and to have adequate time and means to exercise his defense. Evidence obtained in violation of due process shall be null and void. Any person found guilty has the right to appeal the verdict, with the exceptions established in this Constitution and the law.
4. Every person has the right to be tried by his natural judges in the ordinary or special jurisdictions, with the guarantees established in this Constitution and the law. No person may be put on trial without knowing the identity of the person who is trying him, nor may he be tried by courts of exception or by commissions created for that purpose.
8. Any person may request from the State the reestablishment or reparation of the legal situation injured by judicial error, unjustified delay or omission. The right of the individual to demand the personal liability of the magistrate, judge, or judge, and the right of the State to take action against them, shall remain unaffected.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights ratification
This Wednesday is celebrated worldwide as International Human Rights Day, a date chosen to coincide with the day on which the Universal Declaration was adopted on December 10, 1948.
1. The Human Rights Commission committee charged with drafting the text in 1948 consisted of eight members: Eleanor Roosevelt (from the United States), René Cassin (France), Charles Malik (Lebanon), Peng Chun Chang (China), Hernán Santa Cruz (Chile), Alexandre Bogomolov/Alexei Pavlov (Soviet Union), Lord Dukeston/Geoffrey Wilson (United Kingdom) and William Hodgson (Australia).
3. A total of 195 countries have ratified the declaration, including 48 from Africa, 33 from South America, 39 from Asia, including North Korea, 55 from Europe, North America and Central Asia, and 18 from the Middle East and North Africa.
6. Only three women have chaired the annual sessions of the UN Commission on Human Rights: Eleanor Roosevelt (United States), Princess Ashraf Pahlavi (Iran) and Purificacion Quisumbing (Philippines).